The Indian pharmaceuticals market is the third largest in terms of volume and thirteenth largest in terms of value, as per a report by Equity Master. Branded generics dominate the pharmaceuticals market, constituting nearly 70 to 80 per cent of the market. India is the largest provider of generic drugs globally with the Indian generics accounting for 20 per cent of global exports in terms of volume. Of late, consolidation has become an important characteristic of the Indian pharmaceutical market as the industry is highly fragmented.
India enjoys an important position in the global pharmaceuticals sector. The country also has a large pool of scientists and engineers who have the potential to steer the industry ahead to an even higher level.
The UN-backed Medicines Patent Pool has signed six sub-licences with Aurobindo, Cipla, Desano, Emcure, Hetero Labs and Laurus Labs, allowing them to make generic anti-AIDS medicine TenofovirAlafenamide (TAF) for 112 developing countries.
The Indian pharmaceutical industry is estimated to grow at 20 per cent Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)@ over the next five years. The Indian pharma industry, which is expected to grow over 15 per cent per annum between 2015 and 2020, will outperform the global pharma industry, which is set to grow at an annual rate of 5 per cent between the same period!. Presently the market size of the pharmaceutical industry in India stands at US$ 20 billion. As on March 2014, Indian pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities registered with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stood at 523, highest for any country outside the US.
Domestic pharmaceutical market grew at a CAGR of 12 per cent year-on-year in February 2016, broadly in line with the average of 12.9 per cent since April 2015. Indian pharmaceutical firms are eyeing acquisition opportunities in Japan’s growing generic market as the Japanese government aims to increase the penetration of generic drugs to 60 per cent of the market by 2017 from 30 per cent in 2014, due to ageing population and rising health costs.
India has the largest number US FDA compliant plants. The industry is expected to reach US$ 55 million by 2020, out of which US$ 30 million will be for exports.
India’s biotechnology industry comprising bio-pharmaceuticals, bio-services, bio-agriculture, bio-industry and bioinformatics is expected grow at an average growth rate of around 30 per cent a year and reach US$ 100 billion by 2025. Biopharma, comprising vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics, is the largest sub-sector contributing nearly 62 per cent of the total revenues at Rs 12,600 crore (US$ 1.9 billion).
The Union Cabinet has given its nod for the amendment of the existing Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) policy in the pharmaceutical sector in order to allow FDI up to 100 per cent under the automatic route for manufacturing of medical devices subject to certain conditions.
The drugs and pharmaceuticals sector attracted cumulative FDI inflows worth US$ 13.45 billion between April 2000 and December 2015, according to data released by the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP).
Some of the major investments in the Indian pharmaceutical sector are as follows:
- Pink Blue Supply Solutions Pvt. Ltd, a clinical supplies provider, has raised Rs 1.5 crore (US$ 0.22 million) in a seed round of funding from TermSheet.io, a transaction-focused service provider for start-ups and investors.
- Dr Reddy’s Laboratories, one of the major pharmaceutical companies of India, has entered into a strategic collaboration agreement with Turkey-based TR-Pharm, to register and subsequently commercialise three biosimilar products in Turkey.
- Lupin has completed the acquisition of US-based GAVIS Pharmaceuticals in a deal worth US$ 880 million, which is expected to enhance its product pipeline in dermatology, controlled substances and high-value speciality products.
- Cipla Ltd, one of the major pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies in India, has acquired two US-based generic drug makers, InvaGen Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Exelan Pharmaceuticals Inc., for US$ 550 million, which is expected to strengthen Cipla’s US business.
- Emcure Pharmaceuticals has acquired Canada’s International Pharmaceutical Generics Ltd and its marketing arm Marcan Pharmaceuticals in order to boost its global expansion drive.
- Cipla announced the acquisition of two US-based companies, InvaGen Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Exelan Pharmaceuticals Inc., for US$550 million.
- Glaxosmithkline Pharmaceuticals has started work on its largest greenfield tablet manufacturing facility in Vemgal in Kolar district, Karnataka, with an estimated investment of Rs1,000 crore (US$ 146.72 million).
- Lupin has acquired two US based pharmaceutical firms, Gavis Pharmaceuticals LLC and Novel Laboratories Inc, in a deal worth at US$ 880 million.
- Several online pharmacy retailers like PharmEasy, Netmeds, Orbimed, are attracting investments from several investors, due to double digit growth in the Rs 97,000 crore ( US$ 14.8 billion) Indian pharmacy market.
- StelisBiopharma announced the breakthrough construction of its customised, multi-product, biopharmaceutical manufacturing facility at Bio-Xcell Biotechnology Park in Nusajaya, Johor, Malaysia’s park and ecosystem for industrial and healthcare biotechnology at a total project investment amount of US$ 60 million.
- Strides Arcolab entered into a licensing agreement with US-based Gilead Sciences Inc to manufacture and distribute the latter’s cost-efficient TenofovirAlafenamide (TAF) product to treat HIV patients in developing countries. The licence to manufacture Gilead’s low-cost drug extends to 112 countries.
- CDC, the UK’s development finance institution, invested US$ 48 million in Narayana Hrudayalaya hospitals, a multi-speciality healthcare provider, with an aim to expand affordable treatment in eastern, central and western India.
- Cadila Healthcare Ltd announced the launch of a biosimilar for Adalimumab – for rheumatoid arthritis and other auto immune disorders. The drug will be marketed under the brand name Exemptia at one-fifth of the price for the branded version-Humira. Cadila’sbiosimilar is the first in class and an exact replica of the original in terms of safety, purity and potency of the product, claims the company.
- Torrent Pharmaceuticals entered into an exclusive licensing agreement with Reliance Life Sciences for marketing three biosimilars in India — Rituximab, Adalimumab and Cetuximab.
- Indian Immunologicals Ltd plans to set up a new vaccine manufacturing facility in Pondicherry with an investment of Rs 300 crore (US$ 44.02 million).
- SRF Ltd has acquired Global DuPont Dymel, the pharmaceutical propellant business of DuPont, for US$ 20 million.
- Intas Pharmaceuticals is the first global company to launch a biosimilar version of Lucentis, the world’s largest selling drug for treatment of degenerative eye condition called Razumab.
The Addendum 2015 of the Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014, published by the Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC) on behalf of the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, is expected to play a significant role in enhancing the quality of medicines that would in turn promote public health and accelerate the growth and development of pharmaceutical sector.
The Government of India unveiled ‘Pharma Vision 2020’ aimed at making India a global leader in end-to-end drug manufacture. Approval time for new facilities has been reduced to boost investments. Further, the government introduced mechanisms such as the Drug Price Control Order and the National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority to deal with the issue of affordability and availability of medicines.
Some of the major initiatives taken by the government to promote the pharmaceutical sector in India are as follows:
- Indian Pharmaceutical Association (IPA), the professional association of pharmaceutical companies in India, plans to prepare data integrity guidelines which will help to measure and benchmark the quality of Indian companies with global peers.
- The Government of India plans to incentivise bulk drug manufacturers, including both state-run and private companies, to encourage ‘Make in India’ programme and reduce dependence on imports of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), nearly 85 per cent of which come from China.
- The Department of Pharmaceuticals has set up an inter-ministerial co-ordination committee, which would periodically review, coordinate and facilitate the resolution of the issues and constraints faced by the Indian pharmaceutical companies.
- The Department of Pharmaceuticals has planned to launch a venture capital fund of Rs 1,000 crore (US$ 154 million) to support start-ups in the research and development in the pharmaceutical and biotech industry.
- Indian and global companies have expressed 175 investment intentions worth Rs 1,000 crore (US$ 146.72million) in the pharmaceutical sector of Gujarat. The memorandums of understanding (MoUs) would be signed during the Vibrant Gujarat Summit.
- Telangana has proposed to set up India’s largest integrated pharmaceutical city spread over 11,000 acres near Hyderabad, complete with effluent treatment plants and a township for employees, in a bid to attract investment of Rs 30,000 crore (US$ 4.41 billion) in phases. Hyderabad, which is known as the bulk drug capital of India, accounts for nearly a fifth of India’s exports of drugs, which stood at Rs 95,000 crore (US$ 13.94 billion) in 2014-15.
- At the launch of Cluster Development Programme of pharmaceutical sector, MrAnanth Kumar, Minister of Fertiliser and Chemicals, announced that six pharmaceutical parks will be approved and established this year which will have sufficient infrastructure and facilities for testing and treatment of drugs and also for imparting training to industry professionals.
The Indian pharmaceutical market size is expected to grow to US$ 100 billion by 2025, driven by increasing consumer spending, rapid urbanisation, and raising healthcare insurance among others.
Going forward, better growth in domestic sales would also depend on the ability of companies to align their product portfolio towards chronic therapies for diseases such as such as cardiovascular, anti-diabetes, anti-depressants and anti-cancers that are on the rise.
The Indian government has taken many steps to reduce costs and bring down healthcare expenses. Speedy introduction of generic drugs into the market has remained in focus and is expected to benefit the Indian pharmaceutical companies. In addition, the thrust on rural health programmes, lifesaving drugs and preventive vaccines also augurs well for the pharmaceutical companies.